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Paint, Varnishes and Pigments Production Process

Raw Materials

The main raw materials used in the production process are pigments, solvents, resins, vegetable oils, varnishes, alkyds and polyvinyl acetate (PVA) emulsions.

For both large and small plants the main steps in paint manufacture are as follows.

I. Mixing and dispersion.
Pigments are usually added to the vehicle by blending the ingredients in a paste mixer. The paste that is formed consists of poorly mixed aggregates of pigment and vehicle; this paste is brought to a specified fineness and uniformity by using an appropriate mill. "Grinding" or shearing wets the individual pigment particles with the liquid vehicle and further reduces the size of the pigment aggregates. For emulsion paints, such as

the PVA's, the pigments must be dispersed separately in a mixture of surface-active agents and hydrophilic gums.

II. Thinning down and adjusting.

The paste is usually further blended with vehicle, driers, fungicides, and other additives. It is then tinted with colored dispersions to match a desired color standard.

III. Testing
The paint is tested against standards for color, application properties, and other features. It is then adjusted to meet agreed specifications and released for marketing.

Here is a simple schematic diagram of the process. Diagram is taken from document in the internet.

IV. Filtration and packaging.
Filtration is often performed at the time of packaging to remove lumps from the product.

The alternative technological option available is related to the production of some part of the inputs used in the production process. This however, requires huge capital investment and is not recommended in the short and medium stage of the plant life.

Machinery and Equipment
  1. Steel tanks or drums
  2. Mixing tank
  3. Mixing tank
  4. Portable mixers
  5. large paddle mixer
  6. Pebble mill
  7. Sand mill
  8. Small 3-roll mill
  9. Several pumps
  10. Filter press or centrifugal filter
  11. Lift trucks
  12. Stand-by electric generator
  13. Storage tanks and filling line
  14. Scales of different sizes
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