This process (cotton only) is considered one of the processes for finishing preparation, and is only concerned with cotton woven fabrics. In this process the greige fabric surface on both sides is subjected to a gas flame which burns the protruding fibers and results in a smooth surface.
In this process the size materials on the warp threads of the fabric are removed, by passing the fabric in a bath of sulpheric acid or by using enzymes, soap or hot water depending on the sizing material. This process is also considered one of the preparation processes for finishing.
In this process, the desized fabric is passed through a cleaning bath, using alkaline or solvent solutions to dissolve any impurities or soiling on the fabric. Desizing and scouring could be
done in one operation in some plants. The operation is a preparation step for bleaching and dyeing. It is possible to do desizing by using hot water and soap.
This process (for natural fibres) is also one of the preparation processes for finishing, to obtain white colour in the fabric, by using bleaches, such as hydrogen peroxide or hypochlorite.
This process (for cotton only) is also a preparation process for finishing, in which the fabric is treated with sodium hydroxide to create luster, more strength and higher affinity for dyes in the fabric. This process could be applied to woven or knitted cotton fabrics.
This process is the finishing process in which the yarn, fabrics, or garments are treated to add color and intricacy to the product, using dye stuffs, auxiliaries, reductants, oxidants, …etc. This process is well known to be a major source of pollution due to the many chemicals used, and the large quantities of wastewater resulting from the process, and loaded with pollutants.
In this process the fabric is printed with color and patterns, using pigments, dyes, acids, alkalis, softener, binder and emulsifier solvents. Printing is also one of the major sources for pollution.