The processes involved for the production of finished leather from the crust leather stage are presented as follows.
Conditioning by uniformly increasing the water content in the dried leather is necessary before staking. Grain-damaged leather can be improved considerably by butting the grain surface with fine abrasives, and the resulting product is called corrected leather. After butting, the leather dust has to be removed because it would interfere with a proper finishing.
After dusting, the leather is waxed, or treated with pigments, dyes, and resins to achieve a smooth, polished surface and the desired color; or lacquered with urethane for glossy leather. Plating is then used to smooth the surface of the coating materials and bond them to the grain. Hides may be embossed.
Embossing is a way of pressing a specific pattern, e.g., a reptile grain, into the cattle hide grain. The new pattern will cover many grain damages and is consequently used primarily on the lowest leather qualities. Before dispatch, the product will be sorted and measured. Since finished leather production starts from crust leather most of the waste has been removed in the pre-crust processes. Therefore the wastes expected in processing crust leather are minimal.