The technological process of wine production can be categorized into three main stages.
1st stage: Reception of fresh grape. At this stage, the following operations are carried out:
- Weighing of grape,
- Sampling by automatic extractor for sugar content evaluation, and
- Conveying of grape to pressing operation.
2nd stage: Generally, wine-making operation that take place at this stage are:
- Pressing and desteming of the grape;
- Expulsion of the stalks to the external area; and
- Transfer of the crushed grape to the verification lines.
Having completed the above operation, crushed grape is further processed according to the type of wine to be produced (white or red wine). For example, red wine is processed as follows.
- Partial fermentation (24-36 hrs) in auto-vinificator;
- Extraction of the "flower" must where skins have been already removed;
- Filtration of must by plate filter and transfer to the secondary fermentation vats;
- Extraction of pomade from the vinificators and transfer by means of conveyor to a separator; and
- Extraction of the first pressing must wine from the press separator and its transfer by pumping to the secondary fermentation vats.
3rd stage: Final operations. This includes:-
- Decanting and filtration in order to remove any impurities;
- Correction if required by various treatment methods;
- Blending with other wine which is commonly known as “Cutting";
- Stabilization by refrigeration in isobaric stainless steel vats (8 days equal to about 2 years of natural ageing);
- Pasteurization (80oC ) with the effect to remove active ferments; and
- Bottling during pasteurization.
The spent grapes is the only waste expected in the production process of wine and champagne. This spent grapes will be used as fertilizer or animal feed and doesnot have any adverse impact on environment.